Factors determining Product Design
1. Customer requirements
Product design has to give due respect to the requirements of customers. So designers has to ensure that the product they design suits the convenience of customers for use. The product design has to be in a way that they can be used in all conditions.
2. Facility to operators
The designer must see that an operator is provided with all possible comforts and facilities in handling the operations involved in the product design. An operator may not perform efficiently if the product design is so complicated. Operator may get tired off soon and may produce less with a complicated design. Thus machines and tools to perform the operations prescribed in the design must be convenient and comfortable to handle.
A product design should be functionally sound. Purpose of any product design is the complete satisfaction of consumers. So, it has has to function for which it is made. There should be proper coordination in its appearance and service to the consumers.
4. Cost/Price ratio
Product designers, in a competitive market, face lot of pressures in designing one which is cost effective, better quality and the one that attracts a consumer. Cost effectiveness and quality should be an integral part of a product design. With a constraint on the upper limit on producing products, the designer must ensure cost effective designs.
5. Product quality
Quality of a product and its design go hand in hand. Product quality partly depends on how well the design is and partly on conformity. The policy of a firm should stress quality of a product in the design stage itself.
6. Process capability
A product design should stress the quality of conformance. The product design should take into consideration the quality of conformance. This depends on how much the equipment and machines can process. So, a product designer should have adequate knowledge of his machinery. He should be capable enough to specify tolerances which can be achieved by the available machines and equipment.
7. Material requirements
The nature and quality of the materials have significant impact on the design of the product. The designer should have up to date information about new materials available to make the desired product. Industrial, scientific and technical journals as well as the consumers of the product can provide necessary information in this regard.
8. Work Methods and equipment
For a most viable design, necessary equipment and method of work carry a significant amount of importance. So, a product designer should be innovative in nature. He should be aware of the innovations for improving the work methods and nature of the equipment.
Production cost can be influenced by a simple modification in work methods. The product design should be such that there is sufficient adaptability and scope for improvement in work methods and type of equipment required for the operations involved in production process.
9. Effect on existing products
When a product is designed to replace an existing one, a product designer should consider the use of standard parts and components, manufacturing process, distribution strategies and the techniques to blend new manufacturing technology with the existing product. This will keep the cost of implementing the change and marketing the product to a minimum.
Packaging is an essential part of a product. Design of a package is equally important as the design of the product. Packaging design should consider the objectives of packaging such as protection and promotion of the product. Attractive packaging enhances the sales appeal of product in case of consumer products (non-durables).