Principles of a Good Store Location and Layout are briefly explained as follows.
1. Economy in cost of transportation
Location of store building or storeroom layout has a wear on the cost of transportation. The store location should be such that unnecessary material handling is avoided. For example, store building should be located within the factory premises or near to the place of work where materials are required.
While selecting a place of store building, the material handling facilities for transporting materials from and to the store should be taken into account. Proper rail sidings and road facilities to the store should be ensured so that materials can be brought directly up to the receipt counters.
2. Approachability by railroad transport
Raw materials like coal, coke, manganese and ores should be stored in open and in such a way that they can be easily removed by trucks, cranes and conveyors. Also the location of the store should be approachable by rail or road transport.
3. Efficient service
Location of the store should result in extending efficient service to the user departments. As a general rule, raw material store, forgings, castings, bar-stock, etc., should be located near to the shops where initial operations are performed. Finished parts store should be located in the proximity of shipping operations. Jigs and fixtures should be stocked near the materials. Tools and supplies required on daily basis should be stored near production shops.
4. Reduced fire risks
Materials should be stored in locations which minimize fire hazards. For example, inflammable materials like petrol should be stored separately. Consumable material such as paints, oil, grease, cotton waste, etc., should be kept away from one another and from general stores. Oxidizing agents should be kept away from combustible materials.
5. Safety and Security
For security reasons, storeroom should be away from the main gate of premises. Storeroom should not be located near the factory wall where they are likely to scaled by outsiders. Main stores should be located in such a way that suppliers’ representatives, drivers and others do not have easy access to it.
6. Minimization of risk of spoilage and deterioration
While selecting a suitable site for the store, due consideration should be given to temperature, humidity, and lighting requirements.
7. Flexibility for future expansion
While selecting the store site, future expansion needs must be considered. Sufficient space should be available for future expansion of the store department to prevent crowding/congestion or for avoiding the need for shifting the store to another location at a later stage.
8. Overall integration of factors
Since it is almost impossible to satisfy each and every factor, store location should be such that it results in overall integration of factors.
9. The gangways should be wide enough to ensure smooth movement of stores’ trolleys and must facilitate easy withdrawal of parts from bins and racks.
10. Obstructions of all forms such as poles, etc., should be eliminated.
11. The stores racks should not prevent the normal movement of air.
12. In the production area, a leaking roof is immediately noticed whereas it is not so in stores. Hence, we must ensure constantly that the stores is totally water-proof.
13. In the vertical stacking, the load should be distributed evenly and should be broken by intervening shelves.
14. A location system should be so devised that it may indicate precisely the exact position of all items stored inside the store-room.
15. The stores area should be equipped with handling equipment such as cranes, lifts, hoists, etc., and weighing scales.